Medical Technology

Abrocitinib Efficacy Dose-Dependent, Similar Across AD Age Groups

Responses to abrocitinib treatment among patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) showed dose-dependent consistency across age groups and was comparable in patients aged 51 years and older, results from a post-hoc analysis of four trials showed.

Abrocitinib (Cibinqo) is an oral, once-daily, Janus kinase 1 selective inhibitor that has shown good efficacy and safety as monotherapy or combined with topical therapy for treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD. The agent was approved this week in Europe for the treatment of moderate to severe AD in adults who are candidates for systemic therapy and is currently under review at the US Food and Drug Administration.

“We know that responses to and adverse events associated with systemic therapies may vary among patients of different ages,” Andrew F. Alexis, MD, MPH, said during a late-breaking abstract session at the Revolutionizing Atopic Dermatitis virtual symposium. “The efficacy and safety of abrocitinib monotherapy were previously evaluated in adolescent and adult subpopulations from controlled clinical trials in patients with moderate to severe AD. The objective of the current study was to assess the impact of age on short-term responses to abrocitinib treatment in patients with moderate to severe AD.”

Alexis, professor of clinical dermatology at Weill Cornell Medicine, New York City, and colleagues performed a post-hoc analysis across four randomized, double-blind studies that was stratified by age group: 12-17 years, 18-40 years, 41-50 years, and 51 years and older. Efficacy data were assessed separately for patients in the monotherapy pool and in the JADE COMPARE trial. The monotherapy pool included patients from one phase 2b study and two phase 3 studies who received abrocitinib 200 mg, abrocitinib 100 mg, or placebo monotherapy for 12 weeks (JADE-MONO-1 and JADE-MONO-2).

The JADE COMPARE pool included patients who received abrocitinib 200 mg, abrocitinib 100 mg, or placebo, plus medicated topical therapy for 16 weeks. Data from patients in all four trials were pooled for the analysis of treatment-emergent adverse events. Efficacy points analyzed were the Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) score of 0/1 (clear or almost clear), a 75% reduction from baseline in the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI-75), or Peak Pruritus Numeric Rating Scale score (PP-NRS4) at week 12 for the monotherapy pool and at week 16 for COMPARE.

In the monotherapy pool, the proportions of patients ages 12-17 years, 18-40 years, 41-50 years, and 51 years and older who achieved an IGA 0/1 response at 12 weeks were 31.3%, 40.2%, 43.8%, and 50.8% (abrocitinib 200 mg); 22%, 23.7%, 22.4%, and 40.8% (abrocitinib 100 mg); and 8.7%, 8%, 3.3%, and 10% (placebo).

In JADE COMPARE, the proportions of patients aged 18-40 years, 41-50 years, and 51 years and older who achieved an IGA 0/1 response were 50%, 53.2%, and 34.8% (abrocitinib 200 mg); 36.9%, 37.1%, and 26.1% (abrocitinib 100 mg); and 12%, 11.8%, and 16.7% (placebo) at 16 weeks. Similar trends were observed for EASI-75 and PP-NRS4 responses at 12 weeks.

Across all age groups, the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were infections/infestations and gastrointestinal effects; most cases were mild or moderate. Nausea was more frequent in the two younger age groups and was dose-related: For abrocitinib 200 mg and abrocitinib 100 mg, respectively, the rates of nausea were 18.8% and 7.8% in patients aged 12-17 years; 17.1% and 6.4% in patients aged 18-40 years; and 7.1% and 3.3% in patients aged 51 and older.

“Efficacy responses in patients 51 years of age and older were comparable to those in other age groups,” concluded Alexis, who is also vice chair for diversity and inclusion in the department of dermatology at Weill Cornell. “The safety profile was consistent across age ranges and was similar to that reported previously.”

The investigators found that treatment response to abrocitinib “in the absence or presence of medicated topical therapy was fairly consistent across age groups, showed similar dose-dependency, and importantly, did not show reduced efficacy in older adults as measured by lesional severity, extent, and itch at 4 months,”  said Raj Chovatiya, MD, PhD, assistant professor of dermatology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, who was asked to comment on the study.

“Furthermore, the safety profile was consistent across all adults, though notably, nausea was more common among younger age groups, highlighting an area of future investigation,” he added. “Overall, these data show that abrocitinib is associated with similar short-term responses across adulthood and underscore the importance of the JAK-STAT pathway in the underlying pathophysiology of AD in different age groups. It will be interesting to see how these data reflect the real-world setting with both short- and long-term outcomes in a heterogeneous patient population.”

In the interview, Chovatiya commented that “the next frontier in personalized therapy for AD involves deeper clinical phenotyping of our patients and a better understanding of how efficacy and safety vary across patient groups.” For example, he noted, “AD in earlier vs later adulthood may be associated with different clinical signs, symptoms, comorbidities, and other measures of patient-burden, and thus, may be associated with different treatment responses to systemic therapy.”  

Alexis disclosed that he has served as an adviser to or has received consulting fees from Leo, Galderma, Pfizer, Sanofi-Regeneron, Dermavant, Beiersdorf, Valeant, L’Oreal, BMS, Bausch Health, UCB, Vyne, Arcutis, Janssen, Allergan, Almirall, AbbVie, Sol-Gel, and Amgen.

Chovatiya disclosed that he is a consultant to, a speaker for, and/or a member of the advisory board for AbbVie, Arena, Arcutis, Incyte, Pfizer, Regeneron, and Sanofi-Genzyme.

Revolutionizing Atopic Dermatitis symposium: Presented December 13, 2021. Abstract 584, Poster

Doug Brunk is a San Diego-based award-winning reporter for MDedge and Medscape who began covering healthcare in 1991. He is the author of two books related to the University of Kentucky Wildcats men’s basketball program.

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